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Our understanding of the biological significance of sex-specific endocrine and immune-mediated effects in the context of disease risks has greatly benefited from epidemiologic studies.Such studies have led to recognition that females tend to mount higher innate and adaptive immune responses, which may be advantageous upon pathogen encounter, but also come at the expense of a higher risk for autoimmune diseases [7, 8, 11].Dezember 2017, Uhr Einlass ab Uhr Eissportzentrum Oberstdorf Tickets gibt es: Im Eissportzentrum, Tel.08322 / 700 - 530 oder bei Tourismus Oberstdorf, Tel.

The interested reader is referred to the key reviews [2, 3, 7–10].

Surprisingly, sex-specific risk assessments for seasonal, avian, or pandemic influenza, as well as in-depth understanding of associated biological pathways, are still elusive.

Epidemiologic studies describing previous influenza seasons largely focus on virus characterization, severity of the infection, hospitalization rates, and deaths due to influenza-like illnesses by state and country.

This increased risk is likely attributable to the contradictory demands for the maternal immune system to adapt to pregnancy and to simultaneously mount an immune response to clear the influenza virus infection.

Here, we review published evidence on the potential association between sex on influenza risk and propose that future epidemiologic studies should carefully dissect surveillance data for sex-specific effects.

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To date, the effect of sex hormones in certain immunological niches such as the lung is still largely unknown.